Aristotle (384–322 BCE).
De animalibus.
Venice: Johannes de Colonia and Johannes Manthen, 1476.
Translated by Theodorus Gaza and edited by Ludovicus Podocatharus. (06801)

The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle may be considered the first scientist to compile empirical data about the biological world by means of direct observation. His De animalibus includes sections on the history of animals, the first work on animal physiology, the first text on embryology, and lengthy discussion on generation. This first edition was translated by Theodorus Gaza (1398–1478), a Greek scholar who was instrumental in the revival of classical letters in Renaissance Europe.

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